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WikiDoc Resources for Hypokinesia


Most recent articles on Hypokinesia

Most cited articles on Hypokinesia

Review articles on Hypokinesia

Articles on Hypokinesia in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Hypokinesia

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Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Hypokinesia

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Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Hypokinesia at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Hypokinesia

Clinical Trials on Hypokinesia at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Hypokinesia

NICE Guidance on Hypokinesia


FDA on Hypokinesia

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Books on Hypokinesia


Hypokinesia in the news

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Definitions of Hypokinesia

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Hypokinesia

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Hypokinesia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Hypokinesia

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Hypokinesia

Causes & Risk Factors for Hypokinesia

Diagnostic studies for Hypokinesia

Treatment of Hypokinesia

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CME Programs on Hypokinesia


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Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Hypokinesia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


Hypokinesia refers to slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with basal ganglia diseases; mental disorders; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

There are 4 types of this disorder:[1] [2]

  • Bradykinesia: this is the slowness of movement and has been linked to Parkinson Disease
  • Freezing: this is when you can't move your muscles how you want them too.
  • Rigidity: the increase in muscle tension when moved by an outside force
  • Postural instability: loss of ability to maintain an upright posture.


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Estazolam
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic Bokhoror, Dopamine depletion, Dystonia 12, Functional disorders, Inhibition of cortex glutamate, Inhibition of gaba, Pallidopyramidal syndrome, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism, Parkinson's disease, Primary affective disorder, Progressive supranuclear palsy, Psychogenic movement disorders, Viliuisk encephalitis, Viliuisk encephalomyelitis, Westphal disease
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  2. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN 140510368X

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