Hemolytic-uremic syndrome causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sogand Goudarzi, MD [2]


The major cause of HUS in childhood is gastrointestinal infection with verocytotoxin (Shiga-like toxin)-producing bacteria, usually enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC/STEC), and in some tropical regions Shigella dysenteriae type I.Verocytotoxin-producing citrobacter freundii has also been reported. In America and the UK, most cases are associated with E. coli serotype O157:H7, while other serotypes such as O26, O111, O103, and O145 are increasingly reported in Europe and elsewhere.

VTEC strains produce various toxins, the major ones being verocytotoxin-1 (Stx1) and verocytotoxin-2 (Stx2). Verocytotoxin-1 differs by one amino acid from Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Verocytotoxin-2 has multiple variants that are closely related to each other but have 55–60% homology to verocytotoxin1. HUS is mostly caused by verocytotoxin-2-producing strains.HUS can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption.


Common Causes

Common causes of HUS may include:[1][2][3][4]

Less Common Causes

Less common causes of HUS include [6][7][8][9]

Causes in Alphabetical Order

List the causes of the disease in alphabetical order:


  1. Shannon E. Majowicz, Elaine Scallan, Andria Jones-Bitton, Jan M. Sargeant, Jackie Stapleton, Frederick J. Angulo, Derrick H. Yeung & Martyn D. Kirk (2014). "Global incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections and deaths: a systematic review and knowledge synthesis". Foodborne pathogens and disease. 11 (6): 447–455. doi:10.1089/fpd.2013.1704. PMID 24750096. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Chantal Loirat, Fadi Fakhouri, Gema Ariceta, Nesrin Besbas, Martin Bitzan, Anna Bjerre, Rosanna Coppo, Francesco Emma, Sally Johnson, Diana Karpman, Daniel Landau, Craig B. Langman, Anne-Laure Lapeyraque, Christoph Licht, Carla Nester, Carmine Pecoraro, Magdalena Riedl, Nicole C. A. J. van de Kar, Johan Van de Walle, Marina Vivarelli & Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi (2016). "An international consensus approach to the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children". Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 31 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1007/s00467-015-3076-8. PMID 25859752. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Fadi Fakhouri, Julien Zuber, Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi & Chantal Loirat (2017). "Haemolytic uraemic syndrome". Lancet (London, England). 390 (10095): 681–696. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30062-4. PMID 28242109. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Lopes da Silva, Rodrigo (2011). "Viral-associated thrombotic microangiopathies". Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy. 4 (2): 51–59. doi:10.5144/1658-3876.2011.51. ISSN 1658-3876.
  5. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/e-coli
  6. P. J. Medina, J. M. Sipols & J. N. George (2001). "Drug-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome". Current opinion in hematology. 8 (5): 286–293. PMID 11604563. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Fadi Fakhouri, Lubka Roumenina, Francois Provot, Marion Sallee, Sophie Caillard, Lionel Couzi, Marie Essig, David Ribes, Marie-Agnes Dragon-Durey, Frank Bridoux, Eric Rondeau & Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi (2010). "Pregnancy-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome revisited in the era of complement gene mutations". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 21 (5): 859–867. doi:10.1681/ASN.2009070706. PMID 20203157. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Christine Skerka, Mihaly Jozsi, Peter F. Zipfel, Marie-Agnes Dragon-Durey & Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi (2009). "Autoantibodies in haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)". Thrombosis and haemostasis. 101 (2): 227–232. PMID 19190803. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Frémeaux-Bacchi V (2013). "[Pathophysiology of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ten years of progress, from laboratory to patient]". Biol Aujourdhui. 207 (4): 231–40. doi:10.1051/jbio/2013027. PMID 24594571.

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