Epistaxis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Epistaxis Microchapters


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Historical Perspective




Differentiating Epistaxis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amir Behzad Bagheri, M.D.


Although epistaxis often ceases easily, it can become challenging to stop especially in posterior epistaxis which can cause aspiration. Most of the time bleeding stops without any intervention. Prognosis is generally good, and mortality is very rare.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

There are two types of epistaxis:[1][2][3]




  1. Pallin, Daniel J.; Chng, Yi-Mei; McKay, Mary Patricia; Emond, Jennifer A.; Pelletier, Andrea J.; Camargo, Carlos A. (2005). "Epidemiology of Epistaxis in US Emergency Departments, 1992 to 2001". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 46 (1): 77–81. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.12.014. ISSN 0196-0644.
  2. Krulewitz, Neil Alexander; Fix, Megan Leigh (2019). "Epistaxis". Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 37 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2018.09.005. ISSN 0733-8627.
  3. Tunkel, David E.; Anne, Samantha; Payne, Spencer C.; Ishman, Stacey L.; Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Abramson, Peter J.; Alikhaani, Jacqueline D.; Benoit, Margo McKenna; Bercovitz, Rachel S.; Brown, Michael D.; Chernobilsky, Boris; Feldstein, David A.; Hackell, Jesse M.; Holbrook, Eric H.; Holdsworth, Sarah M.; Lin, Kenneth W.; Lind, Meredith Merz; Poetker, David M.; Riley, Charles A.; Schneider, John S.; Seidman, Michael D.; Vadlamudi, Venu; Valdez, Tulio A.; Nnacheta, Lorraine C.; Monjur, Taskin M. (2020). "Clinical Practice Guideline: Nosebleed (Epistaxis)". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 162 (1_suppl): S1–S38. doi:10.1177/0194599819890327. ISSN 0194-5998.
  4. Ryu, Taeha; Kim, Dong Hyuck; Byun, Sung Hye (2018). "Fiberoptic bronchoscopic treatment of blood aspiration and use of sugammadex in a patient with epistaxis". Medicine. 97 (15): e0428. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000010428. ISSN 0025-7974.
  5. Murer, Karin; Holzmann, David; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Soyka, Michael Benjamin (2015). "An unusual complication of epistaxis: cerebral abscess formation after anterior ethmoidal artery ligation". BMJ Case Reports: bcr2015213389. doi:10.1136/bcr-2015-213389. ISSN 1757-790X.

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