Epistaxis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amir Behzad Bagheri, M.D. José Eduardo Riceto Loyola Junior, M.D.[2]


Epistaxis is a prevalent symptom worldwide. About 60 percent of people experience epistaxis at least once in their lifetime, and about 6 percent of these people seek medical attention. It is more common in children and elderly patients.

Epidemiology and demographics


  • The incidence of patients with epistaxis, who required inpatient treatment to control bleeding was estimated to be 42 cases per 100,000 for men, 28 cases per 100,000 for women. For men over 85 years, the incidence is 222 per 100,000 in Thuringia, Germany.[1]
  • Only 6-10% of the patients who experience epistaxis seek medical help.[2]


  • About 60 percent of Americans experienced epistaxis at least once, and about 6 percent of people seek medical attention. [4][2]

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate



  • Based on some studies epistaxis is more common in Caucasian compared with African-Americans.[6]



  1. Kallenbach, Max; Dittberner, Andreas; Boeger, Daniel; Buentzel, Jens; Kaftan, Holger; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Jecker, Peter; Mueller, Andreas; Radtke, Gerald; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando (2020). "Hospitalization for epistaxis: a population-based healthcare research study in Thuringia, Germany". European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 277 (6): 1659–1666. doi:10.1007/s00405-020-05875-2. ISSN 0937-4477.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Beck R, Sorge M, Schneider A, Dietz A (2018). "Current Approaches to Epistaxis Treatment in Primary and Secondary Care". Dtsch Arztebl Int. 115 (1–02): 12–22. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0012. PMC 5778404. PMID 29345234.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pallin, Daniel J.; Chng, Yi-Mei; McKay, Mary Patricia; Emond, Jennifer A.; Pelletier, Andrea J.; Camargo, Carlos A. (2005). "Epidemiology of Epistaxis in US Emergency Departments, 1992 to 2001". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 46 (1): 77–81. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.12.014. ISSN 0196-0644.
  4. Tunkel, David E.; Anne, Samantha; Payne, Spencer C.; Ishman, Stacey L.; Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Abramson, Peter J.; Alikhaani, Jacqueline D.; Benoit, Margo McKenna; Bercovitz, Rachel S.; Brown, Michael D.; Chernobilsky, Boris; Feldstein, David A.; Hackell, Jesse M.; Holbrook, Eric H.; Holdsworth, Sarah M.; Lin, Kenneth W.; Lind, Meredith Merz; Poetker, David M.; Riley, Charles A.; Schneider, John S.; Seidman, Michael D.; Vadlamudi, Venu; Valdez, Tulio A.; Nnacheta, Lorraine C.; Monjur, Taskin M. (2020). "Clinical Practice Guideline: Nosebleed (Epistaxis)". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 162 (1_suppl): S1–S38. doi:10.1177/0194599819890327. ISSN 0194-5998.
  5. Anghel AG, Soreanu CC, Dumitru M, Anghel I (2014). "Treatment Options for Severe Epistaxis, the Experience of Coltea ENT Clinic". Maedica (Buchar). 9 (2): 179–82. PMC 4296762. PMID 25705275.
  6. Mauer, A. C.; Khazanov, N. A.; Levenkova, N.; Tian, S.; Barbour, E. M.; Khalida, C.; Tobin, J. N.; Coller, B. S. (2011). "Impact of sex, age, race, ethnicity and aspirin use on bleeding symptoms in healthy adults". Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 9 (1): 100–108. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.04105.x. ISSN 1538-7933.
  7. Côrte, Filipa Camacho; Orfao, Tiago; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Moura, Carla Pinto; Santos, Margarida (2018). "Risk factors for the occurrence of epistaxis: Prospective study". Auris Nasus Larynx. 45 (3): 471–475. doi:10.1016/j.anl.2017.07.021. ISSN 0385-8146.

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