Epistaxis differential diagnosis

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Epistaxis Microchapters


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Editor in Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amir Behzad Bagheri, M.D.


Many diseases can cause epistaxis. Based on patient history and physical examination we can diagnose the cause of epistaxis. The challenging part is differentiating anterior epistaxis from posterior epistaxis. Rhinoscopy is the best way to distinguish between anterior and posterior epistaxis. In selected cases, endoscopy may be required.

Differentiating Epistaxis from other Diseases

Epistaxis can be differentiated between anterior and posterior epistaxis.[1] [2]

The more common and important causes of epistaxis are listed below:[3]


  1. Krulewitz, Neil Alexander; Fix, Megan Leigh (2019). "Epistaxis". Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 37 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2018.09.005. ISSN 0733-8627.
  2. Tunkel, David E.; Anne, Samantha; Payne, Spencer C.; Ishman, Stacey L.; Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Abramson, Peter J.; Alikhaani, Jacqueline D.; Benoit, Margo McKenna; Bercovitz, Rachel S.; Brown, Michael D.; Chernobilsky, Boris; Feldstein, David A.; Hackell, Jesse M.; Holbrook, Eric H.; Holdsworth, Sarah M.; Lin, Kenneth W.; Lind, Meredith Merz; Poetker, David M.; Riley, Charles A.; Schneider, John S.; Seidman, Michael D.; Vadlamudi, Venu; Valdez, Tulio A.; Nnacheta, Lorraine C.; Monjur, Taskin M. (2020). "Clinical Practice Guideline: Nosebleed (Epistaxis)". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 162 (1_suppl): S1–S38. doi:10.1177/0194599819890327. ISSN 0194-5998.
  3. "StatPearls". 2020. PMID 28613768.

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