Diabetes insipidus risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Omodamola Aje B.Sc, M.D. [2]


The risk factors for the development of diabetes insipidus vary among different types of DI. risk factors for the development of central DI include genetic mutations, pituitary disorders, hypothalamic injury, and head tumors. The most potent risk factor for the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lithium use, as lithium has a very narrow therapeutic index of 0.4-0.8 mmol/L. Excessive water intake has been identified as the only risk factor associated with psychogenic DI, as pregnancy is the only risk factor for gestational DI.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

The following are some of the common risk factors associated with the development of diabetes insipidus:[1][2][3][4]

Less Common Risk Factors

Less common risk factors include:[5][6]


  1. Garofeanu CG, Weir M, Rosas-Arellano MP, Henson G, Garg AX, Clark WF (2005). "Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 45 (4): 626–37. PMID 15806465.
  2. Devonald MA, Karet FE (2004). "Renal epithelial traffic jams and one-way streets". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 15 (6): 1370–81. PMID 15153548.
  3. Bichet DG (2006). "Hereditary polyuric disorders: new concepts and differential diagnosis". Semin. Nephrol. 26 (3): 224–33. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2006.02.004. PMID 16713495.
  4. Bockenhauer D, Bichet DG (2015). "Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus". Nat Rev Nephrol. 11 (10): 576–88. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.89. PMID 26077742.
  5. van Lieburg AF, Knoers NV, Monnens LA (1999). "Clinical presentation and follow-up of 30 patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10 (9): 1958–64. PMID 10477148.
  6. Morello JP, Salahpour A, Laperrière A, Bernier V, Arthus MF, Lonergan M, Petäjä-Repo U, Angers S, Morin D, Bichet DG, Bouvier M (2000). "Pharmacological chaperones rescue cell-surface expression and function of misfolded V2 vasopressin receptor mutants". J. Clin. Invest. 105 (7): 887–95. doi:10.1172/JCI8688. PMC 377482. PMID 10749568.

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