Chronic renal failure historical perspective
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In 1941, Beall et al described a case of kidney injury during world war II. They describe a course of rapidly progressive renal insufficiency with dark urine, edema, elevated potassium levels, and disorientation. In 1946, first hemodialysis was performed by Bywaters et al to treat kidney injury.
- In 1941, Beall et al described a case of kidney injury during world war II. They describe a course of rapidly progressive renal insufficiency with dark urine, edema, elevated potassium levels, and disorientation.
- The earliest definition came from Lucké in 1946 who described the histologic pathology we now know as acute tubular necrosis. The term lower nephron nephrosis was introduced and was later used to refer to abrupt renal failure secondary to excessive vomiting, thermal burns, crush injuries, hemolysis, and obstructive prostate disease.
- Renal failure was then replaced by kidney injury in 2006 following a consensus that even minor changes in serum creatinine not necessarily overt failure can lead to significant changes in outcome.
Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies
- In 1946, first hemodialysis was performed by Bywaters et al to treat acute kidney injury.
- Ultrafiltration technique was developed by Silverstein et al in 1967.
- Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration technique was introduced by Kramer et al in 1980. 
- Beall D, Bywaters EG, Belsey RH, Miles JA (1941). "Crush Injury with Renal Failure". Br Med J. 1 (4185): 432–4. PMC 2161708. PMID 20783578 Check
- LUCKE B (1946). "Lower nephron nephrosis; the renal lesions of the crush syndrome, of burns, transfusions, and other conditions affecting the lower segments of the nephrons". Mil Surg. 99 (5): 371–96. PMID 20276793.
- STRAUSS MB (1948). "Acute renal insufficiency due to lower-nephron nephrosis". N Engl J Med. 239 (19): 693–700. doi:10.1056/NEJM194811042391901. PMID 18892579.
- BYWATERS EG, JOEKES AM (July 1948). "The artificial kidney; its clinical application in the treatment of traumatic anuria". Proc. R. Soc. Med. 41 (7): 420–6. PMC 2184532. PMID 18872160.
- Silverstein, Marc Eliot; Ford, Cheryl A.; Lysaght, Michael J.; Henderson, Lee W. (1974). "Treatment of Severe Fluid Overload by Ultrafiltration". New England Journal of Medicine. 291 (15): 747–751. doi:10.1056/NEJM197410102911501. ISSN 0028-4793.
- Kramer P, Kaufhold G, Gröne HJ, Wigger W, Rieger J, Matthaei D, Stokke T, Burchardi H, Scheler F (July 1980). "Management of anuric intensive-care patients with arteriovenous hemofiltration". Int J Artif Organs. 3 (4): 225–30. PMID 7409920.