Chest pain risk factors

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Chest pain Microchapters


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Differentiating Chest pain from other Diseases

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Risk Factors


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Chest Pain in Pregnancy


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aisha Adigun, B.Sc., M.D.[2]


Common underlying causes in the development of chest pain may be associated with the cardiac, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, drug abuse, [[GERD] and psychiatric disorders.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

Increased age

Increased age is a risk factor not only for acute coronary syndromes but also for other alternative diagnoses that present with chest pain.[1]

Sickle cell disease

Patients with sickle cell disease may present with chest pain in patients without traditional risk factors for acute coronary syndrome and must be evaluated for acute myocardial infarction.[1]

Noncardiac chest pain


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Gulati M, Levy PD, Mukherjee D, Amsterdam E, Bhatt DL, Birtcher KK; et al. (2021). "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 144 (22): e368–e454. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001030. PMID 34709928 Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. Johnson K, Ghassemzadeh S. PMID 29262011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Fass R, Achem SR (April 2011). "Noncardiac chest pain: epidemiology, natural course and pathogenesis". J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 17 (2): 110–23. doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.2.110. PMC 3093002. PMID 21602987.
  4. Faybush EM, Fass R (March 2004). "Gastroesophageal reflux disease in noncardiac chest pain". Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 33 (1): 41–54. doi:10.1016/S0889-8553(03)00131-6. PMID 15062436.
  5. Galmiche JP, Clouse RE, Balint A, et al. Functional esophageal disorders. In: Drossman DA, Corazziari E, Delvaux M, Spiller RC, Talley NJ, Thompson WG, et al., editors. Rome III: The functional gastrointestinal disorders third edition. McLean, VA: Degnon Associates, Inc.; 2006. pp. 369–418.
  6. Bass C, Wade C, Hand D, Jackson G (November 1983). "Patients with angina with normal and near normal coronary arteries: clinical and psychosocial state 12 months after angiography". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 287 (6404): 1505–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.287.6404.1505. PMC 1549961. PMID 6416475.
  7. Fruergaard P, Launbjerg J, Hesse B, Jørgensen F, Petri A, Eiken P, Aggestrup S, Elsborg L, Mellemgaard K (July 1996). "The diagnoses of patients admitted with acute chest pain but without myocardial infarction". Eur. Heart J. 17 (7): 1028–34. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a014998. PMID 8809520.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Eslick GD, Jones MP, Talley NJ (May 2003). "Non-cardiac chest pain: prevalence, risk factors, impact and consulting--a population-based study". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 17 (9): 1115–24. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01557.x. PMID 12752348.
  9. Demiryoguran NS, Karcioglu O, Topacoglu H, Kiyan S, Ozbay D, Onur E, Korkmaz T, Demir OF (February 2006). "Anxiety disorder in patients with non-specific chest pain in the emergency setting". Emerg Med J. 23 (2): 99–102. doi:10.1136/emj.2005.025163. PMC 2564064. PMID 16439735.