Acute kidney injury history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[2]


Patients suspected of AKI should be asked about specific history incuding exposure to contrast and cardiac failure. Symptoms of acute kidney injury include decreased urine output, dark colored urine, fatigue, malaise, and nausea and vomiting.

History and Symptoms 


Patients with acute kidney injury may have a positive history of:

Common Symptoms

Common symptoms of acute kidney injury include:[1][2][3][4][5][6]


  1. PALMER RA, HENRY EW (1957). "The clinical course of acute renal failure; observations on 54 cases". Can Med Assoc J. 77 (12): 1078–84. PMC 1824321. PMID 13489601.
  2. Ostermann M, Joannidis M (September 2016). "Acute kidney injury 2016: diagnosis and diagnostic workup". Crit Care. 20 (1): 299. doi:10.1186/s13054-016-1478-z. PMC 5037640. PMID 27670788.
  3. Makris K, Spanou L (May 2016). "Acute Kidney Injury: Definition, Pathophysiology and Clinical Phenotypes". Clin Biochem Rev. 37 (2): 85–98. PMC 5198510. PMID 28303073.
  4. Winterberg PD, Lu CY (October 2012). "Acute kidney injury: the beginning of the end of the dark ages". Am. J. Med. Sci. 344 (4): 318–25. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318228aef8. PMC 3210873. PMID 21817881.
  5. Liu M, Liang Y, Chigurupati S, Lathia JD, Pletnikov M, Sun Z, Crow M, Ross CA, Mattson MP, Rabb H (July 2008). "Acute kidney injury leads to inflammation and functional changes in the brain". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 19 (7): 1360–70. doi:10.1681/ASN.2007080901. PMC 2440297. PMID 18385426.
  6. Basile DP, Anderson MD, Sutton TA (April 2012). "Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury". Compr Physiol. 2 (2): 1303–53. doi:10.1002/cphy.c110041. PMC 3919808. PMID 23798302.

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